Buffer to the Rescue

Buffer to the Rescue

Micah Martin

September 07, 2006

Recently I was working on FitNesse to solve the problem of large file uploading and downloading. Previously when a file was downloaded FitNesse would happily build a response in memory including the entire contents of the file.

If the file being downloaded was 10k then the response was just over 10k and if the file was 10M then the response was just over 10M.

With larger files FitNesse would run out of memory before it could finish building the response.

Similarly, when uploading large files, FitNesse would attempt to read the entire uploaded file into memory.

For downloading the solution was to build a response that used an InputStream to read a few bytes at a time and write them. That was simple. For uploads a similar approach had to be taken where the uploaded file is read in a few bytes at a time an saved in a temporary file.

But reading the uploaded file from the request was a very interesting problem. Here is a sample HTTP request for a file upload:

POST /files/ HTTP/1.1
Content-Type: multipart/form-data; boundary=----------x0xKhTmLbOuNdArY
Content-Length: 273

Content-Disposition: form-data; name="responder"

Content-Disposition: form-data; name="file"; filename="sampleFile.txt"
Content-Type: text/plain

This is a sample file.

Nice that this is a multipart request and the parts are separated by bunch of characters called a boundary. The first part is called responder and has the value upload. This tells FitNesse that the user wants to upload a file.

The second part is the file. It’s name sampleFile.txt and its content is This is a sample file. Notice that there is no indication of the length of the file content. The Content-Length header says that the body of the request has 273 bytes but that includes all the parts.

FitNesse has to read this request one or more bytes at a time without reading even one byte too many. Think about how FitNesse should read that file content.

We know that it starts just after Content-Type: text/plain and ends just before the boundary (————x0xKhTmLbOuNdArY) but we don’t know how long it will be.

The original implementation for reading the file content looked something like this:

public void read(InputStream input) throws Exception {
				int b = input.read();
				if (b == -1)
								bufferByte((byte) b);

				if (bytesEndWith(bufferIndex, bufferedBytes, boundary)) {
								bufferIndex -= boundary.length();

public static boolean bytesEndWith(int index, byte[] bytes, String boundary) {
				int boundaryLength = boundary.length();
				if (index >= boundaryLength) {
								String subString = new String(bytes, index - boundaryLength, boundaryLength);
								return boundary.equals(subString);
				} else
								return false;

This code, though plagued with two significant problems, served it’s purpose well in production use for almost two years. The first problem is it’s blatant inefficiency.

For every byte it reads allocates a new String object, copies N bytes into the new String, and performs a String.equals(…).

This would take forever for large files but it never gets the chance because the second problem is that it stores the file contents in memory and it runs out of memory for files larger than 2M.

So I began to change the code to copy the bytes to a temporary file instead of storing them in memory. This presented another problem. The code above stops reading after it reads the last character of the boundary. This side effect left all the uploaded files ending with the boundary characters.

So the I had to change the algorithm so that it only saved a given byte if it was not part of the boundary, all the while not reading one byte past the boundary. This was a fun problem to solve and I’ll leave it up to the reader to figure it out.

Then it worked!. I uploaded a 1k file…Perfect! 1M file…no problem…10M file…chug chug done. It worked! These were bigger files than FitNesse could ever upload before. I started to search my hard drive for bigger and bigger files to upload.

I zipped up a Norah Jones album into a 55M file and tried to upload it…chug chug chug chug…chug chug…nothing was happening. Hmmmph. This was strange. After some unsuccessful investigation I decided to put some debugging print statements.

At one second intervals it printed the number of bytes that it copied from the uploaded file. Here’s what I got.


After a minute my browser, Safari, got tired of waiting. It would cancel the request and send it again. I suppose if it was patient or another browser was used it would successfully upload the file after a few minutes. But what gives? I was uploading the file from my laptop, to my laptop.

Why the heck was it copying the bytes so slowly. I figured it must be the algorithm for finding the ending boundary of the file contents. After all it was reading one byte at a time and performing comparisons for each byte.

Considering that there were 54818697 bytes in the file, that’s a lot of work. So I pulled out my microscope and tweezers to fine tune and optimize the algorithm. After about an hour I felt confident that I had significantly improved the performance so I tried to upload the file again.

I was disappointed to see that there was no significant difference. I tried again to optimize it…no improvement. I tried again. In fact I work all evening, slept on it, and continued the next morning. Nothing I did seemed to improve the speed of the upload.

Boy was I huffed. What was I doing wrong? I knew that the upload shouldn’t take nearly as long yet nothing I did improved the speed. I went out on the balcony to enjoy the landscape of southern France.

The scenery there is soothing. Gentle mountains meet the sky to create an intricate horizon where you can see in the distance tiny man-made structures silhouetted atop hills and cliffs.

Then, like the sun shining in the night sky, the solution hit me. There was nothing wrong with my algorithm except that it was reading one byte at a time. Of course! It was the hardware. Each call to read() goes to the hardware and it’s the hardware that so damn slow!

After decorating the InputStream with a BufferedInputStream it worked like a well oiled machine. The upload speed was almost 20 times faster. See the timed results below.

done copying: 54818697