There’s a common pattern I’ve seen for developing DSL in Ruby. It’s used in RSpec, the Statemachine Gem, and Unclebob’s Clean Code talk at RailsConf 2007. I haven’t seen a name for this pattern so I’ll call it the DSL Block Pattern.
Here’s the problem. You’ve got to write code for specific domain such as writing specifications (RSpec), defining a Statemachine, or defining command line arguments (Unclebob’s Clean Code talk).
These domains have a contained and well defined terminology set. Often the cleanest, most elegant way to express this code is to create a DSL.
Before diving into the example, let me say that I like coffee as much as the next guy. But I feel lost when ever I go to a Starbucks. As you know, Starbucks has a it’s own language, DSL if you will, for ordering coffee. What follows is a DSL Block for ordering Starbucks coffee.
The general grammar for ordering coffee is: Size, Adjective (optional), Type of Coffee. This is by no means comprehensive but it’s sufficient for the example. So if you wanted to order a large coffee, for example, you would say, Grande Coffee.
A small espresso: Short Americano. An extra large mixture of regular and decaffeinated coffee with some half and half: Venti Breve Half Caff.
Given the task to code these coffee orders, I’d like to code it like this:
Ok that looks good, but as you look closely, you’ll start to wonder about those methods,
venti “Do they have to be defined on the Kernel?” you may ask.
Defining them on the Kernel is a scary prospect. And that may convince you to clutter the syntax by passing an object into the block like this:
This would allow you to define the
venti methods on the object passed into the block. Although you do need an object where
venti will be defined, you don’t need to add an argument to the block.
You’ll find code out there, such as migrations, that uses this less optimal route. It’s not necessary. The trick to get rid of the argument is below:
You can see that the Order object is doing all the work. It’s got the responsibility of interpreting the DSL, so let’s call it the Interpreter Object. The
Module::order method simply creates an instance of
Order and calls
instance_eval on it.
This causes the block to execute using the binding of the
Order instance. All of the methods on
Order will be accessible to the block.
The Interpreter Object can do any number of things as it interprets the DSL. In this case it simply generates a translation for Starbucks newbies. But, the sky’s the limit really.